T.B.Y. Chen, A.C.Y. Yuen, G.H. Yeoh, V. Timchenko, S.C.P. Cheung, Q.N. Chan, W. Yang, H. Lu
A fire code has been developed for the purpose of modelling wildland fires via Large Eddy Simulation (LES) and the use of the level-set approach to track the flame front. Detailed chemical kinetics have been considered via the strained laminar flamelet approach for the combustion process which included the consideration of the yields of toxic volatiles such as CO, CO2 and soot production. Numerical simulations have been validated against an experimental study on the fire spread on a pine needle board under different slope angles. Peak temperatures and occurrence times during the propagation process were predicted with an overall average error of 11% and 3% respectively. This demonstrates that the flaming behaviour could be well predicted under different slope conditions. By incorporating the level set with the gas phase models, information including temperature field, toxic volatiles and soot particle concentrations can be realised in comparison to empirical fire spread models.