Applications of Lithium-ion batteries (LIB) system increases exponentially owing to its excellent energy-storage efficiency, rechargeability and cost-effectiveness. They were now commonly applied in small mobile electronic devices and automobile, military industries and stationary energy storage systems for modern power grids. The extensive usage of LIB systems, however, is associated with a large variety of risks, in particular fire hazards. Recently, battery fires occurred in vehicles and cell phone has highlighted the importance of developing a fire intervention and protection system for LIBs. The current research interests of LIB fire safety are to understand the key issues using fundamental testing methods, as well as carrying out large-scale fire tests. Although experiments can help us to identify the critical conditions for the safe use of LIB and inform theoretical studies, the underlying causes of electrochemical failure mechanisms that contribute to flame propagation or explosion are yet to be fully investigated. Both are contributory to the design of a holistic fire control system, profound advice for first responders, and reducing the life cycle environmental impact. This project aims to provide a solution to accommodate the safety issues related to LIBs. The outcome is to formulate a comprehensive database for potential transformation into high-quality standards, to accommodate the increase in usage of energy storage systems ranging from buildings, submarines, automobiles, and cell-phones, etc. Deliver an engineering solution for fire containment and detection for LIB system for the effective design of fire suppression and extinguish controls under failure conditions.
Figure 1. Mechanical based smart fire protection system.